The Reichstag of Berlin is irremediably linked to the history of the city. Its construction started on 1884 by architect Paul Wallot due to the need to have a building that would shelter the Parliament of the German Empire. Completed on 1894, the building was highly acclaimed because of the glass dome and the steel that topped the roof, even taller than the actual dome, a great engineering work for that time. When the war was over, the capital of western Germany would move to Bonn, losing its use as a Parliament, even so the decision to restore the building was made. In the year of 1933, during the Nacional Socialist regime, a fire of doubtful circumstances was generated that left it in lamentable conditions, the Parliament moved, and it was no longer used for future sessions. During World War II, after successive bombings, its deterioration increased. When the war was over, the capital of western Germany would move to Bonn, losing its use as a Parliament, even so the decision to restore the building was made. Paul Baumgartner would be the one in charge of its reconstruction between 1961 and 1964. With the German reunification in 1990 eventually Berlin would again be Germany’s capital and consequently the Reichstag would become object of debate about its future. In 1992 another contest is opened for the reconstruction of the building, Sir Norman Foster was the one chosen for its execution. His project starts from four premises: the meaning of the Bundestag as a democratic forum, the commitment with public accessibility, respect for its history, and its sustainability. This way, it is evident that transparency is what evokes this project, its only access to the building is the same for politics and general public, and as a matter of fact it is possible to observe the Parliament sessions through a glass. Foster decided to respect the buildings original structure, nevertheless, its entire interior was modified and the addition of the new dome is the main point of its renovation. The original project of Foster did not include any dome, nevertheless despite being chosen as the one in charge for the reform, his project was not convincing and he had to yield to public opinion and change the design to a walkable dome that was finally approved. The steel structure and glass have a diameter of forty meters, a height of twenty-three and a half meters and a weight of eighty tons supported by twelve reinforced concrete columns. The steel structure and glass have a diameter of forty meters, a height of twenty-three and a half meters and a weight of eighty tons supported by twelve reinforced concrete columns. Its shell is composed by twenty-four steel profiles at fifteen degree intervals of fifteen degrees and covered by more than three thousand square meters of glass. Towards the top of the dome you will find an observation platform forty meters from the ground, accessible through two ramps, one to go up and the other to go down, that are located in the circular perimeter of the dome. However, the most interesting part of the dome is the inverted cone of two meters and a half that crowns the plenary hall, giving an indirect natural light. The used air is canalized from inside the funnel and expelled outside by an opening at the top of the dome. Foster’s reform meets the required functions on the environmental issue. The heating system and energy supply system is a combination of solar energy, the use of water reserves to heat or cool the building and of mechanic ventilation, this way the Reichstag is self-sufficient by 82%, it even supplies energy to other neighboring public buildings, becoming an example of sustainable architecture. Since its inauguration in 1999, the dome of Reichstag has been the symbol and reference point for Berlin and Germany, currently it is the second most visited monument in the country, the Cathedral of Colony being the first. Curiously the entire building was turned into an art installation by the artist Christo and his wife Jeanne- Claude in 1995 called Wrapped Reichstag, which consisted in wrapping the Reichstag with a giant cloth for two weeks, which attracted millions of visitors. From its superior platform, and from the roof of the Parliament itself, it is possible to have a 360° view of Berlin. The entrance is free; the only requirement to complete is an exhaustive security check-up. The entry time is at 8:00 until 22:00, we have to keep in mind that the lines to go in are usually really long, in my case more than one hour. How to get there? Taking the S-Bahn line (urban and commuter rail system, different from the metro U- Bahn line), arrive to the Brandenburg Tor station (S1 and S2) and from there take a walk of about 600 meters on the Unter den Linden avenue, passing through the Brandenburg Gate. At this point we are in front of the Tiergarten and from there it is possible to view the Reichstag. Another option to take is the U55 line that connects the train stations (Berlin Hauptbahnhof) with Brandenburg Tor and get off at the intermediate Bundestag station. Virtual Reality (VR) Virtual reality images for virtual reality glasses viewing in mobile devices There are no limits to see the world: live the experience by yourself in virtual reality ! Join us ! Little Planet Photo Gallery How this Virtual Tour was made I took this virtual tour really early on a cold morning, when it began to dawn. As in most museums in Europe, they do not allow to take pictures in its interiors. Of course, it’s worth entering. After the going in the elevator you will receive an audio guide that will accompany you during your visit. At that time, you will find the most important element of the building, the glass dome that is directly suited beneath the Plenary Halls of the Parliament. The dome, redesigned by the architect Norman Foster for the reconstruction of the building, it aims to be a symbolic element with which it is clear that this place is the center of the Parliament democracy and, the town, from the superior part, it can be seen that all matters are brought clearly. In the interior of the dome, you can see many old photographs through which the history of the Parliament is described through its most important moments.
The Brandenburg Gate is one of the most well-known symbols of the German capital. It is an old gateway to walled Berlin and today, it is one of the greatest attractions of the city, and its surroundings, one of the most attractive. This was built between 1734 and 1737 and it was made up of 18 portals whose names indicated the destination each of them went to. In Berlin, the Brandenburg Gate is the only one left standing; the names of the other gates now give name to subway stations, such as Kottbuser Tor or Hallesches Tor. Built between 1788 and 1791, by the architect Carl Gotthard Langhans, it is inspired by the propylaea which shaped the entrance to the Acropolis of Athens. Built between 1788 and 1791, by the architect Carl Gotthard Langhans, it is inspired by the propylaea which shaped the entrance to the Acropolis of Athens. It is a construction of 26 meters high in sandstone, with Doric columns and reliefs representing the gods Hercules, Mars and Minerva, something typical of the early neoclassic style. Atop the gate, there is a 5 meters high copper sculpture by Johann Gottfried Schadow. It is called Quadriga, which represents the goddess Victoria in a chariot drawn by four horses that advance towards the city. In 1806, the Quadriga was taken to Paris by Napoleon as a war trophy; however, after his defeat in 1814 it returned to Berlin where it was restored. In World War II, the Gate and its Quadriga were severely damaged. In its reconstruction of 1957, East Berlin decided to remake the Quadriga, but this time without the eagle and the iron cross, considered symbols of German imperialism. In 1961 a new history begins, that of Berlin and its wall of division. Its layout made it that the gate remained in the middle of the so-called inner and outer walls, in a territory to which neither the Berliners of the east, nor those of the west had access to. After the fall of the wall, a new restoration was made in 1991 and the statue is completed with all its original elements. In 2002 the total recovery of the Gate is finished, after almost two years of work. The Brandenburg Gate is located between 18th of March Square, and the Pariser Platz, or Paris Square. The first commemorates the March Revolution of 1848 and the first free elections of 1990, after the end of the communist dictatorship. The first commemorates the March Revolution of 1848 and the first free elections of 1990, after the end of the communist dictatorship. Panels with information about this emblematic place can be found there. The Pariser Platz houses the Embassies of France, the United States, and other institutions such as the Academy of Arts. The DZ Bank is also worth a visit as it has a futuristic look thanks to the work of architect Frank Gehry. Finally, the famous Hotel Adlon is another of the noble buildings of this square worthy of a visit. From the front of the Brandenburg Gate, the German Parliament can be seen to the right, with its famous dome which can be accessed free of charge throughout the year. Three hundred meters to the left is Potsdamer Platz, with its three architectural and leisure centers, one of which is the world-famous Sony Center. And if we go through the Gate, we will have in front of our eyes the largest park in Berlin, the Tiergarten, with 210 hectares of green, bicycle lines, lakes, beer courts (Biergarten) and cafes. The Brandenburg Gate is located at the western end of the Unter den Linden Avenue. The closest station to the Gate is the Unter den Linden train station (Trains S1, S2 and S25). Next to the gate there is a tourist office that can come in handy for maps, brochures, and the Berlin Card. One can take advantage and visit interesting places such as the German Parliament, the Tiergarten or Potsdamer Platz. Virtual Reality (VR) Images to see on mobile devices with virtual reality lenses Do not limit yourself to see the world: ¡ live it and enjoy it in virtual reality ! ¡ Subscribe ! Little Planet Photo Gallery How this Virtual Tour was made Many photographers have asked me what the best programs to take panoramic and spherical photographs are, and these are the ones I have been able to find in some specialized websites: Autostitch, Autopano Pro, Panorama Maker, Panorama Factory, PTGui, Panorama Plus, Hugin, PTAssembler, PanoramaStudio, and Calico. Personally, I believe that the most professional and those which do an extraordinary “stitching” are Autopano Pro and PTGui, which are what I normally use.
The Berlin Cathedral stands majestically in the vicinity of the Spree River, crowned by a silver dome of a greenish color. It is the most representative religious building in Berlin, located opposite Lustgarten (Pleasure Garden), between Museum Island and the site previously occupied by the Imperial Palace. The cathedral´s building was built between the years 1894 and 1905 on the foundations of a small baroque cathedral of 1747. The cathedral´s building was built between the years 1894 and 1905 on the foundations of a small baroque cathedral of 1747, right across the Imperial Palace. This proximity to the palace made the cathedral the main church of the Hohenzollern Dynasty court, as well as being the place where family members were buried. In 1944, like most buildings in Berlin, the church was destroyed by a bomb that fell on the dome, causing serious damage to the interior. Although the reconstruction tasks began in 1975, they were long and expensive and they were not completed until 2002. Once inside the cathedral, special attention is drawn to both the altar enclosure, made of white marble and yellow onyx, and the imposing pneumatic transmission organ. It is also interesting the access that the imperial couple used when they went to the Cathedral, since they had their own staircase with all kinds of luxuries, through which they reached the Imperial box. The cellars of the cathedral guard an important treasure, the Hohenzollern Crypt, known for housing the sarcophagi of members of the Hohenzollern Dynasty. The cellars of the cathedral guard an important treasure, the Hohenzollern Crypt, known for housing the sarcophagi of members of the Hohenzollern Dynasty. In the crypt, more than 90 tombs with imperial family members who died from the end of the sixteenth century to the beginnings of the twentieth century can be seen. Through the sumptuous sarcophagi and coffins, more than 500 years of funeral culture of Brandenburg and Prussia are documented. The journey to the dome takes place along a somewhat disastrous road, as if going to an abandoned attic, however, after climbing the 270 stairs that lead to the top of the cathedral’s dome, beautiful views of the center of Berlin can be enjoyed, which make the ascent really worth it. Virtual Reality (VR) Images to see on mobile devices with virtual reality lenses Do not limit yourself to see the world: ¡ live it and enjoy it in virtual reality ! ¡ Subscribe ! Little Planet Photo Gallery Panoramic Photography How was this Virtual Tour made
The Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, in German) is one of the oldest universities in Berlin. It was founded in 1810 as University of Berlin by the educational reformer Wilhelm von Humboldt, whose university model has greatly influenced other universities. Since 1828, it was known as the William Frederick University, and later it was also known as The Unter den Linden Universität after its location. Since 1828, it was known as the William Frederick University, and later it was also known as The Unter den Linden Universität after its location. In 1949, it changed its name to Humboldt-Universität in honor of both its founder William as well as his brother, the geographer Alexander von Humboldt. In 2012, the Humboldt University of Berlin was one of the top eleven German universities to win the German Universities of Excellence Initiative, a national competition for universities organized by the German Federal Government. History The first semester at the newly founded University of Berlin was produced in 1810 with the Faculties of Law, Medicine, Theology and Philosophy. The first semester at the newly founded University of Berlin was produced in 1810 with the Faculties of Law, Medicine, Theology and Philosophy. The University has been the home of many of greatest German thinkers of the last two centuries, amongst them the idealist philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte, the theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher, the idealist philosopher GWF Hegel, the romantic legal theorist Friedrich Carl von Savigny, the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, the philosopher Friedrich Schelling, the cultural critic Walter Benjamin, and the famous physicists Albert Einstein and Max Planck. The founders of the Marxist theory Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, attended this university, as did the poet Heinrich Heine, the novelist Alfred Döblin, the founder of structuralism Ferdinand de Saussure, the German unifier Otto von Bismarck, the founder of the Communist Party of Germany Karl Liebknecht, Pan African American Web Du Bois, and the European unifier Robert Schuman, as well as the influential surgeon Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach in the first half of the 1800s. The university is the home of 29 Nobel Prize winners. The structure of German intensive research universities, like Humboldt, served as a model for institutions such as the John Hopkins University. In addition, it has been affirmed that “the University of the Humboldt” became a model for the rest of Europe. Virtual Reality (VR) Virtual reality images for virtual reality glasses viewing in mobile devices There are no limits to see the world: live the experience by yourself in virtual reality ! Join us ! Little Planet Photo Gallery How was this Virtual Tour made I like to plan my photography trips to have the opportunity to visit more sites of interest to the places I visit. I even send e-mails to the offices of attention to visitors of museums, temples, historic sites, etc.; with information on our website www.sinaloa360.com and our different social media links. In order for them to know our work, as well as to request authorization to take photographs. The apps that I recommend to keep our information well organized are: Google Maps, where you can find all the places you are interested in visiting, PhotoPills, to know exactly at what time we will have the “blue hour” and the “golden hour” both in the morning and the afternoon; and lastly Evernote, which allows me to have absolutely all the information I need. They are really wonderful tools that make easier the activity that photographers love the most: take photographs.
As part of the decoration of the Streets of Berlin, among the streets exists one of the most representative monuments of the city, that is known as the Victory Column (known as the Siegessaule, in German) The decoration with four sections of bronze shows the three wars and the victory march of Berlin’s troops, creation of Moritz Schulz, Karl Keil, Alexander Calandrelli and Albert Wolff. The column started to be built to commemorate the victory of Prussia in the alliance with the Austria Empire against Denmark in the war of the Danish-Prussian war in the year 1864. The column started to be built to commemorate the victory of Prussia in the alliance with the Austria Empire against Denmark in the war of the Danish-Prussian war in the year 1864. After the construction was finished it inaugurated in 1874, Prussia had obtained new victories in the war after seven weeks against the Austria Empire in 1866 and the Franco-Prussian war against Napoleon ́s III Empire. This way the column had to commemorate these two victories as well. At the beginning it was erected in front of Reichstag building (German Parliament), in the middle of the Konigsplatz (that now is the plaza of the Republic), the Column was moved into its original location. During the Nazi Germany following the original preliminary for the remodeling of Berlin, kept standing up the final of the battle of Berlin in the Second World War frame. At the end of the conflict France wanted to blow up the monument, but couldn’t because of the Anglo-American ban. Never the less, France did remove the section where their defeat was reflected. Berlin Victory Column has 69 meters that rise on plenary Tiergarten right in a circle where 5 of the main German capital avenues are united. Berlin Victory Column has 69 meters that rise on plenary Tiergarten right in a circle where 5 of the main German capital avenues are united. The column has four solid sandstone blocks, three of which are decorated with barrels and cannons capturing enemies from the finished wars. The fourth ring it’s decorated with gold tinsels dated from the years of 1938-39. This fourth ring in the column has a meaning, the same as the original 3 rings, it was added by Hitler after the battle of France had concluded. It was restored on its 750 Berlin’s anniversary on 1987 by the French president of that time, Francois Mitterrand. Although, several sections remain in France. For those who want to visit, they can access a viewpoint going up 285 spiral stairs to see the incredible view of the city, a view totally admirable. The Victory Column is a great tourist attraction of the city of Berlin and it’s opened every day: from 9:30 am- 6:30 pm ( April to October), and 9:30 am- 5:30 pm (November- March). Virtual Reality (VR) Virtual reality images for virtual reality glasses viewing in mobile devices There are no limits to see the world: live the experience by yourself in virtual reality ! Join us ! Little Planet Photo Gallery Panoramic Photography How was this Virtual Tour made The Tiergarted of Berlin is equivalent to New York’s Central Park and the London Hyde Park: The Green lung of the metropolis is located on city’s downtown, close to the tourist attractions like Brandenburg door, is even bigger than London’s Hyde park. In this beautiful park is where we can find the Victory column. I did this virtual tour a day before the international Berlin marathon, that is why the boulevard Unter den Linden is carless it looks more traditional and noticeable.
Berlin-Tegel Airport (Flughafen Berlin-Tegel Otto Lilienthal), also called Otto Lilienthal, is the main airport in the city of Berlin, Germany. It is located in Tegel, a district in the Reinickendorf district of Berlin, 11 km from the city. Of the two Berlin airports, it’s the one with the most regular flights operating annually, and also the one with most passengers. In 2014, more than 20 million passengers used the airport facilities. The airport began its operation in 1909 when Count Von Zeppelin brought the first airships to Berlin, specifically to the Tegel district. The airport began its operation in 1909 when Count Von Zeppelin brought the first airships to Berlin, specifically to the Tegel district. The present grounds of the airport were zone of takeoff and landing of these devices until the tragedy of the Hindenburg in 1937, caused the zeppelins (name that were given to the dirigibles in honor of the count) stopped being used for transport of passengers. Subsequently, the land was used by the Nazi regime in Germany to test the V-1 and V-2 rockets, and also as the base of operations of a space project embryo that, due to World War II, never became more than a project. The beginning of operations of Tegel as an airport proper occurs after the end of World War II. In the context of the Cold War, in 1948 the blockade of Berlin by the Soviet Union, which cuts all land communications of the city of West Berlin, located in the center of the GDR. Stalin hoped that, in the absence of supplies, West Berlin would have to give in and become part of the GDR. The allies, especially the United States and the United Kingdom then began an airlift (Luftbrücke in German) between the RFA and West Berlin, initially to the Tempelhof airport, in the North American sector of Berlin, and later also to Tegel, in the French sector of Berlin. The Gatow Aerodrome was also used in the British sector of Berlin. The supply of 4,000 tons of goods per day was very complicated, but the flights grew in number, and after a few months, West Berlin received up to 900 daily flights. The figure would grow to almost 1,400 daily flights in the first months of 1949, 24 hours a day, which meant that an allied plane landed in Berlin every minute. In order to make the airport more operational, in 1948 the one that was then the longest runway in Europe, 2,400 meters long, was built. In order to make the airport more operational, in 1948 the one that was then the longest runway in Europe, 2,400 meters long, was built. The blockade of Berlin, and with it the Air Bridge, ended in May 1949, when the USSR realized that it was not going to obtain the expected results. 70 pilots (39 Americans and 31 British) died in accidents during the Blockade. The administration of the airport was returned to the civil authority in 1960. Until that moment, Tegel had been an air base of the French army. On that date international passenger flights began from Tegel (until then all commercial air traffic was made from Tempelhof, which would soon be too small to accommodate the new aircraft, such as the Boeing 747, when Air France opened its route with Paris. clause of the Four Power Agreement on Berlin (1972), stipulated that no German airline could fly to or from Berlin, and that only American, French, British or Soviet airlines could do so, so the main flights from Tegel were operated by Pan Am, Air France and British Airways. At the beginning of the 70's the new facilities were built, initially designed to accommodate five million passengers per year (the current figure is more than eleven million). The design was the responsibility of the Gerkan, Marg und Partner study. The hexagonal terminal allows the travel of the suitcases between the aircraft is minimal, and so is the waiting time of passengers in the terminal. In 1975 all commercial air traffic from the Tempelhof airport was moved to Tegel; Tempelhof remained solely as a North American air base, and Tegel markedly increased its passenger traffic. With the German reunification, the flight ban to the German airlines ends, and the Lufthansa begins its flights from the airport. Virtual Reality (VR) Virtual reality images for virtual reality glasses viewing in mobile devices There are no limits to see the world: live the experience by yourself in virtual reality ! Join us ! Little Planet Photo Gallery Panoramic Photography How was this Virtual Tour made In many public places, for safety reasons, the use of tripods is prohibited, airports, stadiums, museums, shopping centers, are some of them. That’s why on this occasion, in order not to miss the opportunity to take virtual reality photographs, I used the "technique of phyllopod tone variation", in which you’re not really using a trippy and you can be as fast as possible to rotate the camera around the point of no parallax. The trick is to install in front of the lens a piece of rope tied and at the end a coin or a fish led that makes weight down, which will help you maintain a reference and thus keep the camera in the same place while you turn around to take the different photos. Four photos are taken, one in each direction and the tone is varying slightly up and down between the shots. Hang the coin or lead over the same spot on the ground. Do not look at the camera, rather, look at the coin so that it stays above the same point on the floor. You take the first picture, then you rotate 90 degrees and you take the second picture, so turning 90 degrees you take a third and fourth picture. With this you achieve a totally spherical panorama taken without tripod.